The global rise in incidence of Type 1 Diabetes(T1D) does not correlate with genetic drift and indicates that environmental exposures are playing an increasingly significant role. Despite major biomedical and technological advances in diagnosis and treatment, treatments are frequently insufficient as they do not inhibit the progression of the underlying autoimmune response, and often fail to prevent life-threatening complications. T1D is the result of autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas, and the precise, mechanistic contribution of the immune system to disease pathogenesis and progression remains to be fully characterized. Ultimately, the combinatorial effect of concurrent factors, including beta cell fragility, exogenous stressors, and genetic priming of the innate and adaptive immune system, work together to induce T1D autoimmunity. Thus, T1D is the result of immunological defects and environmental pathogens, requiring the sustained attention of collaborative research teams with varied perspectives,, unified by the universally held goal of finding a sustainable, life-long cure.
We have created an international group to promote scientific discussion on all aspects of the immunology of diabetes by fostering research related to the immunology, genetics, and pathogenesis. As a group, we were drawn together by our common interests in developing better approaches to discovering therapeutics, biomarkers and cures for diabetes. Our interest brought us to become Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (nPOD) investigators, where we were able to engage and discuss our ideas. For the most part, we represent basic research scientists with a wide range of expertise and scientific approaches that include genetics, immunology, beta cell biology, microbiota, prediction and disease prevention as well as studies in related autoimmune disorders and the ability to actively pursue our collaborative ideas to study clinical samples as well as develop animal models.
The first Fresh Ideas, Foundational Experiments: Immunology and Diabetes symposia workshop took place in 2016 and exemplified the active interest of a number of several researchers interested in this collaborative effort. Growth continues with the development of innovative and dynamic new partnerships in research and open communication of experimental outcomes with future symposia and active forums for discussion planned. The FIFE:I&D Group would like to use this Research Topic to share their data, ideas, and promote collaborations on how to promote novel therapies with the goal of a cure for T1D.
Keywords: Immunology, Diabetes, Beta cells, Autoimmune Disease
Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.
The abundance of salt in the processed foods we eat works against us when it comes to maintaining healthy blood pressure, says Chris Smith, The Diabetic Chef. For people with diabetes, controlling blood pressure is important in preventing, delaying, and minimizing microvascular damage that affects eyes, nerves, and more.
That's why federal guidelines for daily sodium intake are under scrutiny. The recommendations are:
For the general public: 2,300 milligrams daily
For people with high blood pressure: 1,500 milligrams daily
For African-Americans: 1,500 milligrams daily
For all adults over age 50: 1,500 milligrams daily
Yet nearly all Americans exceed the recommended amounts, consuming an average of 4,000-6,000 milligrams of sodium each day. An estimated 70 percent of Americans, especially older adults and people with high blood pressure (75 percent of PWDs have high blood pressure), could lower their blood pressure by reducing their sodium intake to 1,500 milligrams each day.
"Help is on the way as food manufacturers and restaurateurs are being nudged by health organizations and activists to lower the sodium count of their foods," Smith says. Early deliberations from the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Committee (the report is expected in fall 2010) indicate a target of 1,500 milligrams daily for adults.
Action item: Cut down on processed foods, restaurant foods, and using the saltshaker. Eat more fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods, which boost your potassium count and blunt sodium's effects on blood pressure.
Try these low-sodium recipes